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A Guide to Cannabinoids and Their Properties

Jun 11, 2021

A Guide to Cannabinoids and Their Properties

Cannabinoids have gained a lot of interest in the scientific and wellness communities in recent years. As a result, scientists have performed an increasing number of studies to determine how each of these newly discovered cannabinoids interact with the human body when consuming THC gummies or any other product. As a result, the wellness community has been flocking to store shelves to purchase their favorite CBD and hemp-derived Delta 8 THC products in record numbers.

All of this began back in the 1960s when cannabinoids like CBD and THC were discovered. Then, in the 1990s, scientists found an entire endocannabinoid system within the human body that had never been known before. Since then, scientists have identified cannabinoids that the body creates (endocannabinoids) as well as over 100 cannabinoids that are created by the cannabis plant (phytocannabinoids). They have also determined that each of these cannabinoids has certain properties, and our bodies react to these properties in different ways.

Endocannabinoids and the Endocannabinoid System

The human endocannabinoid system is a complex cell-signaling network that is located throughout the nervous system and brain. As far as science has been able to determine so far, this network is responsible for regulating many functions such as memory, mood, sleep, appetite, and a host of other processes.

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is made up of endocannabinoids, receptors, and enzymes.

  • Endocannabinoids are cannabinoids created within your body, and science has discovered two so far: anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG).
  • Receptors are found throughout the body and consist of CB1 receptors (found mainly in the central nervous system) and CB2 receptors (found mainly in your peripheral nervous system).
  • Enzymes are created by the body and break down the endocannabinoids once they have performed their function. These enzymes consist of fatty acid amide hydrolase, which breaks down the AEA endocannabinoid, and monoacylglycerol acid lipase, which breaks down the 2-AG cannabinoid.

The way the ECS works is that your body produces endocannabinoids as needed. These endocannabinoids then bind to the CB1 and CB2 receptors to let the ECS know that it’s time to take action. The effects from the ECS are determined by the type of endocannabinoid and the location of the receptor to which it binds. For example, if a person were in pain, an endocannabinoid might bind to the CB1 receptor in the spinal column to relieve it. Once the endocannabinoid has done its job, the enzyme comes along and breaks it down.

Phytocannabinoids from the Cannabis Plant

Now that we’ve got a good idea of how the endocannabinoid system works, we can better understand cannabinoids from the cannabis plant and their properties.

CBD (cannabinol)

CBD is one of the most abundant cannabinoids in the hemp variety of the cannabis plant. It tends to bind with the CB2 receptors in the body and produces physical benefits, such as enhanced sleep, improved appetite, and an overall calmer demeanor. CBD is not known to have any intoxicating effects and is perfect for THC users who want the benefits of THC but don’t want the psychoactive effects. Interestingly enough, CBD is known to act as a buffer against the overly intoxicating effects of Delta 9 THC.

Delta 9 THC (Δ9–tetrahydrocannabinol)

Delta 9 THC is one of the most abundant cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant and the first to be discovered. It has the strongest intoxicating effect of all the cannabinoids and is found in large quantities in marijuana. Delta 9 THC binds with CB1 receptors, which is what produces the strong psychoactive effects. This cannabinoid also produces other physical effects like relaxation, relief from discomforts, and increased appetite. However, extended use of Delta 9 THC has been known to cause side effects like paranoia and anxiousness.

Hemp-Derived Delta 8 THC (Δ8–tetrahydrocannabinol)

This cannabinoid is molecularly similar to Delta 9 THC but different enough to cause a slightly different effect. While hemp-derived Delta 8 THC does carry an intoxicating quality, it is far less than Delta 9 THC. Using a product with this cannabinoid gives an overall good feeling throughout the body instead of the intense head high found with Delta 9 THC. Hemp-Derived Delta 8 THC is also not known to cause the same side effects as Delta 9 THC. 

CBG (cannabigerol)

CBG is known as the “mother of all cannabinoids” because the young hemp plant starts with an abundance of CBG, but the CBG converts to CBD and other cannabinoids as the plant grows. Like CBD, this cannabinoid is not intoxicating. However, studies are ongoing to see the impact that CBG has on illnesses like Crohn’s and glaucoma.

CBN (cannabinol)

CBN derives from the same tetrahydrocannabinolic acid as Delta 9 THC, so it does have an intoxicating component, but not nearly that of Delta 9. Most strains of cannabis have very low levels of CBN, but it is being studied for its effectiveness at relieving symptoms of arthritis and as a sleep aid.

CBC (cannabichromene)

CBC is another cannabinoid that is only found in small quantities in the cannabis plant and is non-intoxicating. Like CBD, CBC can act as a buffer against the intoxicating effects of Delta 9 THC. Initial studies have shown that this cannabinoid may play a part in key functions of brain development and health.

We Know the Power of Cannabinoids at PharmaCBD!

A lot of research is still being done on cannabinoids and the potential they have to provide several wellness benefits. We will continue to monitor that research and bring you information on the newest findings.

We at PharmaCBD understand the power of cannabinoids. For this reason, you will find many of our products like our Flagship Oil, and many of our edibles are labeled as “full-spectrum.” This means that the product contains high levels of CBD and other helpful cannabinoids like CBG and CBN, along with beneficial terpenes and flavonoids. This combination of cannabinoids and other elements is known to have a much greater beneficial effect than just a CBD isolate alone.

We encourage you to make your next CBD purchase with a distributor who knows the power of cannabinoids. Shop with PharmaCBD!